Sunday, August 18, 2019

Medieval Piety Essay -- essays research papers

Religion in the Middle Ages takes on a character all of its own as it is lived out differently in the lives of medieval men and women spanning from ordinary laity to vehement devotees. Though it is difficult to identify what the average faith consists of in the Middle Ages, the life told of a radical devotee in The Book of Margery Kempe provides insight to the highly intense version of medieval paths of approaching Christ. Another medieval religious text, The Cloud of Unknowing, provides a record of approaching the same Christ. I will explore the consistencies and inconsistencies of both ways to approach Christ and religious fulfillment during the Middle Ages combined with the motivations to do so on the basis of both texts. A central component of medieval religion that is evident in even the slightest dissection of the life of Margery Kempe or the directed discipline from the author advising contemplation is an unmistakable desire for religious experience. Even among married men and women who are occupied with family responsibilities, lay people during this time such as we see in the life of Margery herself are seeking more intense religious ways of living. Margery, as the example, lived with her husband with whom she had fourteen children. Growing up influenced by the church, her spirituality came to a heightened level when she and her Jesus began having actual communication with one another. While the church was catalyzing religious experience in medieval communities, upon the realization of direct mystical connection with Christ in the lives of people such as Margery, the desire for the inward search for spiritual satisfaction spread. Another tendency of those practicing religion in the Middle Ages is to take Jesus' words from the Bible to a new literal level affecting medieval lifestyles across the board. Where monks and nuns had typically been the only observers of chastity, fasting, and poverty, laity began to observe these life practices as well. In Margery Kempe's life, this apodictic understanding of Jesus' biblically recorded or spoken words is evident among her commitment to make vows of chastity, her desire to embark on long pilgrimages, and her steps of unquestionable obedience as she advances on her spiritual journey. The absolute submission of Margery and the dedication to perfect contemplation in The Cloud of Unknowing which warns, â€Å"†¦y... ...Jesus commands to Margery the contrary saying on one occasion â€Å"†¦go again to her husband and pray him to grant her what she desired† (Windeatt, 59). Margery lived well aware of her desires and, though they often caused temporary conflict such as her chastity, did not neglect herself to such extremes as hiding the desires of her heart or the absence of knowledge. Similarly of the two texts, the practice of contemplation suggests that one comes to know God on the basis of both intellect and emotions. Margery clearly understands this emotional tie to the divine in her relation to the passion of both Christ and Mary and her sufferings on the behalf of them both. Though most probably did not practice their faith as devoutly as Margery Kempe, the central concerns of her life coupled with the practices taught in The Cloud of Unknowing reveal a faith that is defining of Medieval Christianity. Both texts act as a mirror reflecting the Middle Ages and come down to a same key ingredient: desire. Never has there been a time like the Middle Ages where the prevalent desire to physically and emotionally experience the truths of religion was so widespread and evident in the lives of Christians.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Battlefield of the Mind

â€Å"Battlefield of the Mind: Winning the Battle in Your Mind† Author: Joyce Meyer Reviewer: Lisa Hutson I believe many times in the Christian and especially in the Pentecostal realm, we tend to do things in the name of Christ because we â€Å"felt† like it was from the Holy Spirit and instead of determining that by lining it up with the Bible, the living word of God, we tend to trust that our â€Å"feelings† are correct. But what happens when those feelings steam from negative, confused, judgemental or passive thinking?I never realized until I read this book that the majority of the bad decisions I have made in my life were decisions I made based on present feelings and that those feelings came from faulty or negative thinking. After I read this book, I understood that it is the things that I think about constantly that are the things that soak up my life. If those thoughts are positive, I will reap positive benefits. If those thoughts are negative, I will reap negativity but it is all in how I think. There are three life lessons that I have learned to incorporate into my daily life in order to live a Christ filled life.When I tend to go through those â€Å"wilderness mentalities†, I have learned to always do my best to be positive, to regularly meditate on the Word of God, and to be thankful at all times. Explaining the importance of being positive, Meyer tells us the mind is a battlefield. After reading 2 Corinthians 10;4,5, Meyer says that we are engaged in a war, our enemy is Satan and that our minds are the battlefield. The devil works diligently to set up strongholds in our mind and he does it through strategy and deceit and that he takes his time to work out his plan (16-17).In order to prevent the devil’s lies from penetrating our minds, we must defend them. You cannot have a positive life and a negative mind. Your life will not get straightened out until your mind does (27-28). Positive minds produce positive lives. Negative minds produce negative lives. Positive thoughts are always full of faith and hope. Negative thoughts are always full of fear and doubt (41). What really struck me about this concept is how Meyer tells us that thinking positive isn’t ignoring the negative, but it is believing that God is bigger than you and your situation and that all things will work together for good as His word promises.I am generally a happy person. I laugh at everything, I like making other people laugh and having good conversations. However, when negative things do arise, I tend to get angry or seclude myself. If I am having a disagreement with a co-worker or an argument with my parents, I will just refuse to talk to them. When the Holy Spirit brings them to my memory, I let negative thoughts produce even more feelings of strife and it takes a long time to get over it. I remember one time last semester when I was so upset with my mother that I refused to talk to her for almost four months!Learn ing to be positive does not mean that the negative situation did not happen but it simply means that we believe that God will heal it or bring good from it. It means forgiving even if we don’t forget but allowing the Holy Spirit to work in our attitudes so that we do not become weighed down by our situations. Meditating on God’s word is another huge lesson I have learned from this book. I believe that my biggest mistake early on in my walk with the Lord was not reading His word for myself. I became a christian at the age of fourteen and filled with the Holy Spirit by the age of sixteen.However, I would rather go on Wednesday nights and hear my youth pastor tell me what the Bible said instead of reading it myself. When I tried to read on my own, I often became very confused and frustrated and gave up. I let other people tell me how to live instead of searching it out myself. I continued this all through high school and finally during my senior year I had a very hurtful situation occur between myself and another family in the church. Since I wasn’t solid in my faith and relationship with the Lord, I let it tear me down significantly and I stayed out the church for about a year and a half.I let another’s faith become my own and when they failed me, I equated that with God failing me. â€Å"This book of the law shall not depart out of your mouth, but you shall meditate on it day and night, that you may observe and do according to all that is written in it. For then you shall make your way prosperous, and then you shall deal wisely and have good success. † Joshua 1:8 The Bible tells us that if we want to be a success and prosper in all of our dealings, we must meditate on the Word of God day and night.The Word of God teaches us what we should spend our time thinking about (57). Meditation in this context means to spend a lot of time pondering and thinking on the ways of God, His instructions and His teachings (57). In my situation , I had let sermons, Sunday school, and people in the church mold my faith and thought process instead of spending time myself thinking about the Word. I thought about the Word while I was sitting in church but outside of that, I had not really let it sink in. Now, I am making a significant effort to seek the scriptures myself.Of course, I am involved in church again but I am also making an effort during my own time to spend quality time with the Lord, in prayer and in His word, allowing Him to mold me into what He has created me to be. The last thing that â€Å"The Battlefield of the Mind† has taught me is to be thankful at all times. How can the devil control us if we are going to be joyful and thankful no matter what our circumstances are? â€Å"I will bless the Lord at all times; His praise shall continually be in my mouth. † Psalm 34:1We can be a blessing to the Lord by letting His praise continually be in our thoughts and mouths (162). Be a grateful person, one f illed with gratitude not only toward God, but also toward people (163). Expressing appreciation is not only good for the other person but it is good for us, because it releases joy in us. Meditate daily on all the things you have to be thankful for. Rehearse them to the Lord in prayer, and as you do you will find your heart filling up with life and light (163). During my teenage years, my family went through a financial crisis. We lost our home and our vehicles.I spent my junior year of high school with my parents living out of a garage that we made into a make-shift home. I remembered crying myself to sleep many nights in that garage. I was embarrassed about our situation, angry at my parents for getting us in this mess, and confused that the Lord could let this happen to us. After about fifteen months in that garage, things finally began to turn around. We were able to sell our property and the garage, move into a rental property and get decent vehicles to drive instead of the old sixties model truck my dad had bought for three hundred dollars during the crisis.I remember being so grateful for that new rental property. It was an old yellow brick home, but it was wonderful to me. I had a room with real walls! I spent all of my savings on making my own bedroom beautiful with new paint, picture frames and curtains. It was through that situation that I truly learned how to be grateful. My parents and I have come a long way from that old garage but I still have a picture of that old garage in a frame in my room at home. Sometimes even now, I find myself being selfish and ungrateful for my many blessings.I think everyone does. However, that memory always shows me how far the Lord has brought me and how much farther He can take me as long as I stay faithful. â€Å"Battlefield of the Mind† by Joyce Meyer has many solid lessons that have taught me a lot about how to live victorious in Christ. As a young Pentecostal believer, I always thought everything was spi ritually supernatural. If God wanted me to think a certain way, He would just zap it into my head. However, as I grow in my relationship with Him, I realize He is not going to spoon feed me forever.He wants me to seek Him. If I put His lessons and teachings into practice, I will live victoriously. Being positive, meditating on His word and always being thankful to Him and to the people around me are just a few ways I can make my life a living sacrifice to Him. However, its really not even a sacrifice, for the blessings and benefits I receive from these practices far out weight the negatives. I learn more and more about myself and about my Heavenly father as I delve deeper into His word.His word is what empowers my positive attitude and reminds me to be grateful not only for His sacrifice but also for the many blessings He bestows on my life daily. I loved this book. I’m sure I will keep it around to read occasionally and remind myself to get my mind in order! Thinking produce s feelings and feelings behaviors and if I’m not happy with any certain behaviors, I must stem it back to what I spend my time thinking about. My mind is the battlefield and when it is renewed in Christ, I will be able to battle the enemy with confidence, perseverance, and power.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Classical Conditioning and Pros and Cons of Punishment Essay

Classical conditioning is a form of behavioral learning and was first introduced when Ivan Pavlov came upon a study when he was studying the psychology of digestion in dogs. He noticed that the dogs would not just begin salivating when the meat powder was introduced, but also when the person responsible for feeding would enter the room or heard there footsteps. Classical conditioning is when two stimuli are presented in close succession repeatedly, until the response given to one becomes associated with the other. An example of this was when Pavlov introduced the bell right before he brought the dogs food that is unconditioned stimulus, it would cause an automatic reaction or unconditioned response. The bell would be the conditioned stimulus or neutral stimulus. When paired together, the unconditional stimulus and the conditional stimulus would cause conditioned response. There are many ways to apply classical conditioning to everyday life. Here I will show you how it can be used in teaching your dog to sit. When my son was small he wanted a dog and I would always watch him play with his dog call Casper. I would watch my son try to put Casper in the front of his 2 seat car and try to strap him down but Casper will always try to bit him. I had too but a muzzle over Casper’s mouth so he wouldn’t bit my son. Then my son will ride around the compound and pretended Casper was his best friend or sometimes his baby brother. After checking myself, I realize I was punishing and innocent dog was brutal and violent action which was not really necessary. I decided to teach Casper some tricks so I bought a clicker to start Casper on his training course. The first trick we thought our dog was to sit. From then on, every time my son tell the dog to sit I would click the clicker twice. Soon as Casper sat I would give him a treat, a small piece of beef treat. We would practice this over and over until eventually all I had to do was make two click of the clicker and Casper would sit. Casper after a while would stare at me waiting on the treat. In this situation, the click of the clicker is the neutral stimulus which by itself meant nothing to the dog. However, when the neutral stimulus comes to be paired with something, the beef treat, it caused the dog to react and in this case to sit. The treat is the unconditioned stimulus and the reaction is unconditioned because no prior learning was required. However, when we  paired the click of the clicker with the beef treat it then triggers a reaction in the dog to sit. This now changes the neutral stimulus, the click, into a conditioned stimulus and since Casper now sits at the click it also changes the reaction into a conditioned response. After learning this my son used the same procedure only this time one click was used to teach the dog to come. Now my son doesn’t have to strap Casper in the seat anymore. My son just have to sit in his car and Casper will run after the car and jump into it at sit for himself. Conclusion it is through Pavlov’s discovery of classical conditioning that one can rationalize how a person acquires involuntary reactions to a particular stimu lus. Animals as well as humans can be taught to react to certain activities in a particular way. Just as my scenario of teaching my dog to sit with a clicker. As this paper proves by my own scenario of teaching my dog to sit that classical conditioning is still used today in our everyday lives. To teach a dog the meaning of the click, a treat is given immediately after clicking. Once the dog learns the positive effects of the clicking sound, the clicker itself acts as a conditioned reinforcement. Now Casper seem to run after my son without even hearing the click of the clicker but just a mare rolling on the wheels of his little car. As I have learned about the pros and cons of punishment in my own person training of my dog it don’t have to be always brutal when teaching but rather enhancing what a dog already know with operant condition. Sometimes if we use too much force it my turn a dog into and aggressive and dangerous animal or the dog might become more obedient to its master.

Everyman & Seventh Seal Comparison

Every November 6th 2012 Comparison Between Dramatic Works Everyman and Seventh Seal The fifteenth century play Everyman explores the journey of a man, who represents the individuals of mankind, who is confronted by the inevitability of his own death. Very similarly, Antonius Block is portrayed during the fourteenth century bubonic plague, and is confronted by death on reoccurring occasions. During the events of the two dramatic pieces, the two protagonists visit many similar and different circumstances while figuring out solutions to their crisis. It is clear that historically, t has had an impact on the outcomes of the play. First of all, it is intended to be clear that morality is inducted as a major aspect of the plays. In Everyman, an ordinary man is made to face his duty in life. His confrontation comes from a dialogue with Death to distinguish if he is ready to die. Of course, â€Å"thou comest when I had thee least in mind,† and he is not ready. Everyman seeks camarader ie on a dangerous journey, but is abandoned by allegorical figures like Goods, Knowledge, Kindred etc. He soon finds out the only thing that remains areGood Deeds, and that is the only important thing to be accepted into the Kingdom of Heaven. In Bergman’s Seventh Seal, Antonius Block is visited by Death in a form of a chess game, which was inspired by the painting,Taby Kyrka. Both plays foreshadow their inevitable death as it is being delayed by the protagonists to provide one last good measure. For instance, Everyman understands he is going to die, he just wanted to provide one last deed to cleanse his soul, and Antonius understands it as well, but he is just delaying it. In the end both provide their promise as Everyman is ready to die, andAntonius knocks over the pieces so Jof and Mia could escape death, as he accepts his own. Secondly, the historical context has had a major role on the development on both plays. In Everyman’s case, it was written in the late 15th century which deals with; the Fall of Constantinople, the 100 years war, and the Great Fall, which would all follow into Christian Humanism. This attitude influenced the Western European society and people started writing more about God, and the human perception on afterlife. Morality in the play is shown to convey a Christian message and shows him rying to save his soul to reach salvation, and promote the sacraments to others. During this time period Christians believed they had some responsibility and control over the afterlife. Catholics were mainly trying to promote what’s important and forget about the superficial items on Earth. On the other hand, Seventh Seal is referred to the Book of Revelation, and it’s stated in the film, â€Å"And when the Lamb had opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour† (Revelation 8:1). Seventh Seal was a Swedish film shot in 1957 set during the Black Death and is portrayed in a very cc urate way. The story is mainly supposed to represent four recipes for catastrophe which include death, famine, war, and plague, which is evidently shown throughout the progression of the play. When Antonius is confronted by Death, he challenges him to a chess game to delay the inevitable. This helps represent mans endless conflict with God as we struggle with not important goods. It shows people dying of the plague and people giving themselves up as a way to repent because of their incapability to believe in God Both plays are portraying an overall theme that shows everyone will soon come to their demise, it is mportant that we focus on what is important to achieve salvation, and forget what isn’t to avoid obstacles. We are surrounded by temptations materialistic goods, but that is only temporary happiness. People must strive for overall happiness for the eternal life. Both plays strongly present this in an accurate manner, share a very similar theme, while showing death can appear in different ways. Death does not make its presence known in reality, but it does come to everyone and different fashions randomly, therefore the only things Catholics can do is prepare for judgement.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Discuss how three or more important symbols add to your understanding of Of Mice and Men Essay

In Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck portrays messages to the reader through various techniques, including the vivid animal imagery presented throughout the novella, most notably in Chapters 1 and 6. However, his most potent form of message conveying is through his use of symbolism. Interweaving light imagery and exercising characters as symbols into the text furthers the development of integral themes and plotlines throughout the turbulent story. From the â€Å"deep and green Salinas River† to the â€Å"right hand that had held the gun†, Steinbeck’s utilization of symbols contributes to the reader’s overall appreciation of the chaotic book, highlighting recurring themes such as loneliness. As was stated in the introduction, Steinbeck employs characters as symbols. The most familiar example of this is old Candy. Candy is a significant figure in Of Mice and Men, due to the likenesses between him and George. â€Å"I ain’t much good with on’y one hand†¦that’s why they give me a job swampin,’ Candy explains to George. As a swamper, this is all Candy has left. In 1930s America, a worker who could not work to his full potential, especially during the time of the Depression, would be replaced- Candy’s ultimate fear. That’s why he wants to â€Å"cook and tend the chickens and hoe the garden some† on Lennie and George’s land. Candy can lead a safe life, not having to worry about being â€Å"canned†. Candy’s stumped wrist is a result of an accident on the ranch. Candy is a prime example of being caught in the Migrant Worker’s Cycle- moving to one job, before leaving and moving somewhere else. A link can therefore be established with George, and Lennie, who appear to have been traveling around working before the time of Of Mice and Men. This is another case of the cyclic nature of the novella, and a reflection of the American way of life in the 1930s. Another example of Candy’s symbolic nature is with his â€Å"ancient dog†. This [Candy and his dog] is the first ‘relationship’ in the novella to be broken, with the final bond, George and Lennie, being destroyed at the climax. â€Å"‘No,’ he said softly. ‘No, I couldn’ do that. I had ‘im too long,'† explains Candy in Chapter 3, referring to the idea of killing his dog. This is very similar to George who, despite knowing Lennie will only cause grief to him and those around him, does not want to hurt him, because he too has been with his companion for a long time. Candy explains that, â€Å"I been around him so much I never notice how he stinks,† while George earlier says, â€Å"but you get used to goin’ around with a guy an’ you can’t get rid of him.'†- Another likeness between the two. George has his own dog, Lennie, who follows George around, maintaining silence in conversations and growing increasingly dependent on a master. During the novella, the recurrence of loneliness, and speculating at a lonesome finale, is ever present, especially in the form of playing cards. The bunkhouse is often the scene of the games, with George the dealer. This is significant, as George frequently exclaims his desire to be alone, â€Å"If I was alone I could live so easy.† However, solitude is George’s enemy, and he is fearful at the prospect of living alone. This is projected through his card playing, â€Å"Slim sat down†¦across from George†¦He studied the solitaire hand that was upside-down to him.† Inadvertently, George has dealt a game of solitaire- a single player game, an insinuation at the conclusion of the story, when George ultimately kills his companion. A similar event arises when Candy’s dog is led by Carlson to be shot. â€Å"‘Anybody like to play a little euchre?'† asks George. The key theme of loneliness is being forced away by George, who refuses to be alone, opting to ask the group to play cards. The constant reminding of impending solitude, and its effects, enable the reader to understand and fully interpret the inevitability of what is to come. Hands play a vital role in the symbolism of Of Mice and Men. There are various references to the hands of men, building up to the climatic noting, â€Å"right hand that had held the gun.† Despite the assortment of quotes in relation to hands, each has its own meaning. George’s â€Å"right hand† is the killing hand that seals his isolation in the world. Candy’s lack of a hand, accompanied by persistent referencing to his handicap, â€Å"Candy stood in the doorway scratching his bald wrist,† provides a stark reminder of the perils of working in 1930s America, stressing the importance of staying healthy. If an illness or injury affected the work rate of a person, they were often removed from their job- a brusque feature of Capitalism. The contextual relevance expands the fluency of the text for the reader, as the framework for the 1930s American society is commonly paralleled with the novella. With regards to Curley, his â€Å"glove’s fulla Vaseline†, which he’s â€Å"keepin’ soft for his wife.† This is one of many sexual references regarding Curley’s wife, who regularly symbolizes the contextual attraction of whorehouses and prostitutes to the migrant workers. As stated above, Curley’s wife’s character is sharply familiarized with prostitutes and the brothels of the 1930s American society. Her flirtatious nature is met with an everlasting disapproval from the workers on the ranch – Candy thinks, â€Å"Curley’s married†¦a tart,† who, â€Å"got the eye,† referring to her engaging character. However, in a letter to Miss Luce, the actress who plays Curley’s wife in the play version of the text, Steinbeck explains, â€Å"She is a nice, kind girl and not a floozy.† According to Steinbeck, â€Å"she is a little starved. She knows utterly nothing about sex except the mass of misinformation girls tell one another.† From this, we can deduce that Curley’s wife isn’t a â€Å"Looloo†, and she isn’t likely to be found in â€Å"Old Susy’s Place†, but due to the fact Curley and her have not consummated their marriage, she feels an object to men â €“ â€Å"no man has considered her as anything except a girl to try to make.† Curley’s wife, Steinbeck explains, is a nice person, and knows the only way men will notice her is if she is desirable. In Of Mice and Men, Curley’s wife experiences loneliness, due to neglect from Curley, and she confesses this to Lennie, â€Å"‘Ain’t I got a right to talk to nobody?'† Since no one has tried talking to her, Curley’s wife has not proved to be anything more than a floozy, which explains the unpleasant behaviour towards her. It is interesting that, when Candy calls her a â€Å"tart†, there is a pause, as if to suggest caution. Further along in the conversation, Candy asks, â€Å"You won’t tell Curley nothing I said?† This implies that Candy is afraid Curley will learn of what he has been saying, as the ranch is the only work he’ll ever acquire, due to his old age and handicap. The threat of Curley’s wife to the workers intimidates them to the point of obeying her. Steinbeck’s pointed description of how Curley’s wife flagrantly flirts with the other workers is a repetition of the theme, which he has earlier shown, using the brothels and his showing of the women who work in them as being mere objects. It is almost as if Curley’s wife believes that the only way to get by in life is to be like those women in the brothel, and to offer herself as an object. This is the case in Chapter 4, when Crooks coldly exclaims, â€Å"You got no right comin’ in a coloured man’s room.† Curley’s wife uses her position as the boss’ son’s wife, and her contextual superiority over the Negro to threaten him, â€Å"I could get you strung up on a tree so easy it ain’t even funny.† This is threatening to Crooks, as one simple cry of ‘Rape’ will result in a lynching. Curley’s wife also knows that, despite the harmful comments made by the men on the ranch, she holds a distinct advantage over them – â€Å"Curley’s pretty handy.† – Curley could beat the worker, and get them fired, due to his position as the boss’ son. All but two of the workers fear Curley – Slim, â€Å"Slim†¦was scowling†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢You lay offa me,'† and Carlson – â€Å"‘I’ll kick your god-damn head off.'† Curley’s wife, therefore, can target the remainder of the men, and flirt with them, to further her position. This goes horribly wrong when she begins to pursue Lennie. Firstly, she re-establishes her coyness through Lennie’s dream, â€Å"‘Well if that’s all you want, I might get a couple rabbits myself.'† Then, in the barn house, she looks, â€Å"closely at Lennie to see whether she was impressing him,† another instance where she is trying to leave her mark on a worker. Curley’s wife seals her own fate by exclaiming, â€Å"‘Mine [Hair] is soft and fine†¦feel right here.'† This is the last ‘stage’ of Curley’s wife’s seduction – physical contact. She has seen for herself that Lennie likes to pet things, and she foolishly bids Lennie to stroke her hair, knowing full well he will. Lennie strokes too hard, and she â€Å"flops like a fish.† Steinbeck purposefully repeats this simile, as this has been used when Lennie crushes Curley’s hand. This shared simile between the married couple suggests similar characteristics between the two – most notably the volatile tempers of the two, â€Å"‘What’s the matter with me?’ she cried.† As the novella was written in 1930s America, the contextual content would be ever-present. However, coming off of the Depression, the American Dream had been damaged. This is highlighted by Curley’s wife, â€Å"I never got that letter,† referring to her failed career as an actress. â€Å"He says he was gonna put me in the movies. Says I was a natural.† This is a prime example of the American Dream – a nobody becoming a somebody. However, as with the Depression and many lives in America, this Dream was shattered – â€Å"So I married Curley,† almost as if she married him to anger her mother, â€Å"‘I always thought my ol’ lady stole it.'† Curley’s wife can be classed as the Depression itself – the ender of dreams. The Depression ended the American Dream (Curley’s wife’s dream), as well as other people’s – in Of Mice and Men, Curley’s wife also ends Lennie and George’s dream, by enticing Lennie, which led to her death, and the end of the Dream. Putting this into reality, these small symbolizations, such as Curley’s wife ending Lennie and George’s dream, enhances the understanding of the novel, as the main contextual features are evidently clear, assisted by Steinbeck’s geographical knowledge of the area – Steinbeck was raised in the California area, and he worked on a farm – the descriptions of the landscape would therefore be accurate, blurring the line between fact and fiction. One of the most effective symbols that Steinbeck employs to the novel is that of animal imagery. Throughout the novel, Lennie is likened to a bear, due to numerous references, â€Å"sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws.† The bear-like stance of Lennie suggests his ferocity and power aid him, but he is clumsy, and prone to attack, a true reflection of Lennie’s character. In the opening and final chapters in the novella, the moods are very different, yet similar. The evocative beginnings to each chapter contain repetition of â€Å"the deep green pool of the Salinas River,† whilst both being disrupted by man. The most significant part about these openings is the disposition of the disturbance – in Chapter 1, â€Å"the rabbits hurried noiselessly for cover, â€Å"whilst in Chapter 6, Lennie’s intrusion is â€Å"as silent as a creeping bear moves,† yet another reference to his bear-like stature. However, the most potent form of animal imagery is when it is used in a prefigurative sense. In Chapter 1, â€Å"A stilted heron laboured up into the air and pounded down-river.† In Chapter 6, the heron reappears, â€Å"A silent head and beak lanced down and plucked it out by the head, and†¦swallowed the little snake.† This is a foreshadowing of the events to follow, where George shoots Lennie in the back of the head. Steinbeck’s manipulation of his short story permits him to substitute ordinary characters and plots with complex, contextual symbolism. This is used to great effect, and enhances the reader’s understanding of the text, which allows a broader knowledge of both the book and the milieu in which it was written.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Economics Sba Essay

Title: An analysis into the involvement of adults in the financial sector. Purpose of Investigation The purposes of this research are: 1. To identify the association of adults with the formal sector of Tobago. 2. To determine the involvement of adults in the informal sector of Tobago. 3. To determine the factors affecting the involvement of adults in the financial sector. Methods of Investigations The primary source of information used in this project is: 1. Questionnaire. Thirty-one questionnaires were distributed to residents of Canaan. All the persons responding were eighteen and over. Limitations Faced Some limitations faced are: * Villagers misunderstanding some of the questions. * Villagers not taking the questionnaire seriously. * Locating responders to retrieve questionnaires was difficult since they were not known personally. Presentation of Data Factors Affecting Choice in Stock Market Frequency of Use of Stock Market Service Analysis and Interpretation of Data Description of Financial System in Trinidad and Tobago The financial system is a network of savers, investors and financial institutions that work together to ensure that savings are transferred to investors. The financial system consists of two sectors: formal and informal. The formal sector includes all the financial institutions that are regulated officially, such as, commercial banks, credit unions, central bank, stock exchange and insurance companies. The informal sector includes all financial activities that are not under official control, such as, sou sou, money lending. The functions of the Central Bank are: * maintaining the exchange rate of the local currency * solely authorizing the issuing of money * acting as treasurer to government; making payments and receiving taxes * acting as a banker to commercial banks by managing their banking systems * assisting commercial banks that are facing financial problems * assisting development of money markets A commercial bank is a financial institution that is engaged in money transmission services and is jointly owned by shareholders. In Tobago there are four commercial bank; First Citizens Bank, Scotiabank, Republic Bank and Royal Bank of Trinidad and Tobago. A credit union is a cooperative association whose members can obtain low-interest loans from their combined savings. There are nine credit unions in Tobago, these are; Lambeau Credit Union, Bethel Credit Union, Mt. Pleasant Credit Union, Thawe Credit Union, Whim Credit Union, Tunico Credit Union, Total Holdings Credit Union, Runnemede Credit Union and People’s Credit Union. The Trinidad and Tobago Unit Trust Corporation is a mutual company that dominates the mutual fund market in Trinidad and Tobago. There is a branch in Scarborough, Tobago. The Western Union Company is a financial services and communications company. There are several locations in Tobago, including in Crown Point, Scarborough and Canaan. An insurance company provides financial protection for property, life, health, etc., against contingencies, such as death, loss or damage. There are insurance companies in Tobago; ScotiaLife, Colonial Life Insurance Company, The Beacon and Guardian Life. A stock exchange is an organized market facilitating the purchase and sale of securities, operated by professional stockbrokers. The Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchange is located in Port-of-Spain. Market Structure Market Structure refers to the type of competition faced by firms in an industry. The four main market structures are perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and monopoly. | No. of Buyers and Sellers| Knowledge| Type of Product| Control of Price| Barriers to Entry| Perfect Competition| Many buyers and sellers| Perfect| Homogeneous| Price Taker| No barriers| Monopolistic competition| Many buyers and sellers| Imperfect| Differentiated| Price Setter| Low barriers| Oligopoly| Many buyers, few sellers| Imperfect| Homogeneous or differentiated| Price Setter| High barriers| Monopoly| Many buyers, one seller| Imperfect| Unique| Price Setter| Very high barriers| Banks in Trinidad and Tobago fall under an oligopolistic market because there are few sellers and many buyers. Credit unions are under a perfect competition market. Unit trust is a monopoly. Western union is an oligopoly. Insurance companies are oligopolies. The stock exchange is a monopoly. Participation of Adults in Canaan Village in the Formal Sector Banks Location was the largest factor in Canaan’s choice in banks at 24%, and customer service followed with 22%. Advertisements affected 16% of respondents, whereas 13% were influenced by friends. Both the respondents who chose at random and those who knew employees of banks earned 9% each. Unspecified reasons determined 5% of choices and age–group appeal impacted only 2%. Twenty-three adults in Canaan use banks; 13% use them rarely, 26% visit fortnightly, 30% monthly, and another 30% weekly. Stock Market Only three residents of Canaan are involved in the stock market, one influenced by friends, another chose at random and the third whose reason was unstated. Of the three residents who use the stock market, each used the service at different frequencies: rarely, monthly and another unspecified time span. Credit Unions Influence of friends determined 21% of residents of Canaan choice in credit union, indefinite reasons following with 17%. Respondents who decided at random earned 13%, those who chose based on knowing an employee earning the same. Customer service and location earned 12% each, advertisements affect 8% and age group only appealed to 4%. The majority of respondents, namely 35%, rarely use the services of a credit union. The second most common time span, monthly, made up 24%. 18% use credit unions annually, and 12% chose based on unspecified reasons. 6% use services weekly and another 6% fortnightly. Unit Trust Advertisements influence a quarter of Unit Trust members in the village of Canaan. Customer service, friends and unmentioned reasons affected 19% each and 18% of respondents were impacted by location, age group and knowing an employee equally. Of the Unit Trust members that reside in Canaan, 45% rarely use its services. Another 45% use it monthly, and approximately 10%, fortnightly. Insurance Companies Customer service influenced 24% of Canaan’s residents in terms of insurance companies, 19% were impacted by advertisements and age-appeal affected 14%. Respondents who knew employees made up 10%, and those whose reason was unspecified also formed 10%. Location and friends each earned 9%. 5% of choices were made at random. 40% of villagers who have insurance use it monthly and those that use it fortnightly, annually, and at unstipulated time intervals made up 20% of respondents each. Western Union Of the people who use Western Union/Money Gram in Canaan, an estimated 25%, were influenced by the customer service, 25% were affected by location and another 25% by arbitrary selection. Unstipulated reasons determined 17% of villager choices and 8% personally knew an employee. The most common frequency at which the services of Western Union/Money Gram were used was ‘monthly’, earning 44%. One quarter of the remaining 56% of respondents used services rarely, another quarter, annually, another weekly, and the final uses the services in an unstated time period. Findings 1. It has been found that 100% of the adults in Canaan that use services of the formal sector. 2. There was participation in the in informal sector. Â  3. The main factors affecting the involvement of residents of Canaan in the financial sector are location, influence of friends, customer service and location. 4. To identify the association of adults with the formal sector of Tobago. 5. To determine the involvement of adults in the informal sector of Tobago. 6. To determine the factors affecting the involvement of adults in the financial sector. Recommendations 1. One of the factors Institutions can appeal more to certain age groups.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Biographical essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Biographical - Essay Example Chamberlain must have governed in frenzy of faith that the mad man of Germany would calm down soon. He must have played the gentle man that Britain was not going to blow the first whistle on Germany. While Hitler, Mussolini and Japan came out openly as rogue leaders and state, we sat back and watched. It seems nothing was wrong with the invasion of Manchuria. It seemed it was all okay to embark on rapid militarization of Rhineland. The appeasement policy massaged Hitler’s roaming appetites for war. I have today set foot on Europe to bring good news, thanks to Chamberlain and the appeasement policy (McDonough 1). I bring good news from the world on the other side pacific that we are indeed very sorry for this war, which the world could have avoided. This is the news that I bring with a gun on my hand and explosives on my back.† Powell spearheaded many military strategies and by October 1944, there was huge progress. He helped in designing the D-Day operations and strategi es, much to the success of the Allied. After the end of the war, Powell returned to work in Europe under the Marshall Plan. He records in his diary the following. â€Å"The Marshall Plan is a big boost in the recovery of Western Europe and Japan in the post-war period. I can see a future beyond the rubble, hunger and starvation. Even so, I fail to understand why the Russians with whom we had just fought on the same side could be taking advantage of the situation. I foresee a quite friction between the ambitious Soviet and the USA. I believe it is now time for reconstruction, not for claiming plunders of the war. Otherwise, I may consider that I fought on the wrong side of the war.† Amongst other entries, Powell observes that the onset of the Cold War started with Russia’s taking advantage of the small nations. He also notes that in the aftermath of the war, many states in Eastern Europe were still weak. Rather than being left to their own determination, Russia was forc ing them one after another into communism. It is then that the US acted under the Truman’s Doctrine (McDonough 1). Under the Truman’s Doctrine, it became the official policy of the US to support any free people resisting attempted subjugation by an armed foreign force. To counter the emerging tyranny of Russian, Powell received orders to watch keenly the developments in Eastern Europe and advise accordingly. This was the early years of the Cold War in the aftermath of WWII. Powell was also not an apologist for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki situation on the account that it was a consequence of war. He based his reasoning purely on war strategy. From his 1945 diaries, he has offered sufficient reason why the use of the atomic bomb was unavoidable (Doyle 1). As noted in his diary, he enters the following: â€Å"The world seems to forget so fast. Just the other day were dealing with Hitler and Mussolini. That is over, and the next rogue is Russia. The United States is practi cally fighting proxy wars to help those whose right to free determination is under threat by the USSR. It is foolhardy to start playing blame games at this moment on whether the atomic bomb solution is justified.† Powell indicates that when the United States resolved to use atomic bombs on Japan, it was because that was the only solution left. Germany and other axis powers had been subdued and surrendered. The war had dragged for too long, but Japan was not